December 4 – 6, 2019
Renaissance Washington DC
May 15 – 18, 2020
(SUO dates TBD)
December 2 – 4, 2020
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019
Source: Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Author(s): Rola Saleeb, Sung Sun Kim, Qiang Ding, Andreas Scorilas, Sicheng Lin, Heba WZ Khella, Carl Boulos, Gena Ibrahim, George M. Yousef
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by mRNA cleavage or translational repression. The miR-200 family is involved in the regulation of various tumor biologic processes including apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. They function mainly as tumor suppressors. In this study, we aim to validate the prognostic significance of miR-200 family using large cohort of primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and matched normal tissue and to explore the role of miR-200 family in RCC pathogenesis and progression.
We analyzed the expression of 3 members of the miR-200 family; miR-141, miR-200b, and miR-200c, between primary ccRCC, matched normal renal tissues, and nonmatched metastatic RCC. We compared clinicopathologic parameter including disease-free survival to miR-200 family expression. Additionally, we validated our results using The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. We explored functional role of these miRNAs by bioinformatics analyses.
Expression of miR-200 family significantly decreased in cancer compared to non-neoplastic tissues. miR-141 and miR-200b were significantly down-regulated in metastatic than primary tumors. There was statistically significant negative association between all 3 miRNAs and tumor size and stage. As binary variables, univariate analyses revealed that miR-141, miR-200b, and miR-200c-positive ccRCC patients have a statistically significant lower chance of disease-recurrence or relapse and multivariate analyses showed miR-200b and miR-200c-positive patients have longer disease-free survival. We could predict disease-free survival better when 2 or more miRNAs were used as a combination. Overall survival analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas data revealed that miR-200b-positive patients have significantly better survival. These results suggest that miR-141, miR-200b, and miR-200c are independent prognostic markers for ccRCC. Targets of these miRNAs are associated with pathways related to cancer invasion and metastasis, including TRAIL pathway, VEGF and VEGFR signaling network, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019
Author(s): Mario I. Fernández, Patricio Valdebenito, Iris Delgado, Jorge Segebre, Eduardo Chaparro, David Fuentealba, Martín Castillo, Cecilia Vial, Juan P. Barroso, Annemarie Ziegler, Alberto Bustamante
Beyond exposure to arsenic in drinking-water, there is few information about demographic and clinicopathological features of patients with bladder cancer living in arsenic-exposed regions. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of arsenic exposure on clinicopathological characteristics in patients with bladder cancer from a contaminated region compared to those of 2 reference areas.
Data of 285 patients with bladder cancer (83 with arsenic exposure from Antofagasta and 202 controls from 2 different sites in Santiago) were obtained through personal interviews and from review of medical records. Demographic, clinicopathological parameters, and information on relevant environmental risk factors were compared with parametric and nonparametric tests as needed. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify independent predictors for high grade and muscle-invasive disease (T2-4).
We found no significant differences between groups regarding age at presentation (66.4 vs. 66.5 and 67.2 years; P = 0.69, for exposed vs. the 2 nonexposed groups, respectively) and female gender (28.9% vs. 29.8% and 26.2%; P = 0.84). Proportion of current smokers was significantly lower in the exposed population (10.7% vs. 38.6% and 26.9%; P < 0.001). There was a significantly higher proportion of locally advanced (10.8 vs. 1.8 and 0.7% T3/4; P = 0.002) and high-grade tumors (79.5% vs. 63.2% and 64.1%; P = 0.001) within arsenic-exposed patients. Arsenic exposure was the only significant predictor for the presence of high-grade tumors (adjusted OR: 5.10; 95%CI: 2.03–12.77) on multivariable analysis.
Our study revealed relevant clinical differences in bladder cancer patients with a history of arsenic exposure as compared to nonexposed cases. The more aggressive phenotype associated to arsenic-related bladder cancer should be considered when designing efficient screening strategies for this high-risk population.
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019
Author(s): Daniel Hyuck-Min Kwon, Hala T. Borno, Heather H. Cheng, Alicia Yiran Zhou, Eric Jay Small
Prostate cancer is among the most heritable cancers, and clinical testing for germline genetic variants based on ethnicity, disease features, and family history has recently become standard of care for men with advanced disease. It is not established whether prevalence of germline variants varies based on ethnicity or race.
We retrospectively examined germline genetic and clinical data of men reporting a diagnosis of prostate cancer referred to Color Genomics by a healthcare provider for testing of 30 genes associated with hereditary cancer risk. Variants were classified as pathogenic (P), likely pathogenic (LP), variant of uncertain significance (VUS), likely benign, or benign. P/LP and VUS prevalence was compared among subgroups classified by age at diagnosis, self-reported ethnicity, family history, and history of other cancer.
We identified 1,351 men reporting a diagnosis of prostate cancer of any stage who underwent germline testing. Overall, 78% of men were Caucasian, 11% Ashkenazi Jewish, 3% African-American/Canadian (AAC), 2% Hispanic, 2% Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and 4% Other (multiple, unknown, Native-American). One-hundred eighty-seven men (13.8%) carried a P/LP variant, and the most prevalent P/LP variants were in BRCA2 (3.4%), CHEK2 (2.8%), MUTYH (1.8%), and ATM (1.7%). Age at diagnosis, ethnicity, type of family member with prostate cancer, and type of second cancer were not associated with risk of carrying any P/LP variant. Ashkenazi Jewish men (6.7%) were more likely to carry P/LP BRCA2 variants than Caucasian men (2.8%) (P < 0.05). Two-hundred eighty-four men (21.0%) carried a VUS, and AAC (36.6%) and API (33.3%) men were most likely to carry a VUS (P < 0.01).
P/LP germline variants are prevalent in men with prostate cancer. AAC, Hispanic, and API men with prostate cancer are under-represented in studies of germline testing, potentially contributing to higher rates of VUS relative to Caucasian and Ashkenazi Jewish men. Further studies in these groups will facilitate reclassification of VUS, increasing opportunities for early detection, cancer risk modification, and targeted therapeutics.