May 3 – 6, 2019
December 4 – 6, 2019
Renaissance Washington DC
December 2 – 4, 2020
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019
Source: Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Author(s): Michael Owyong, Yair Lotan, Payal Kapur, Vandana Panwar, Tiffani McKenzie, Thomas K. Lee, Xiaolin Zi, Jeremy W. Martin, Ahmed Mosbah, Hassan Abol-Enein, Mohamed Ghoneim, Ramy F. Youssef
Checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of urothelial bladder cancer. However, there have been no reports on the prognostic value of programmed-death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. We assessed the relationship between PD-L1 expression, clinicopathological features, and oncologic outcomes in bladder SCC.
Immunohistochemistry of PD-L1 was performed on 151 radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC treated in Mansoura, Egypt from 1997 to 2004.
Median patient age was 52years (range: 36–74 years) and median length of follow up was 63 months (range: 1–100 months). Schistosomiasis was present in 81% of the specimens and 93% had muscle-invasive disease on pathologic staging. PD-L1 expression was negative in 50 (33%) of the specimens. Negative PD-L1 expression was associated with higher pathologic tumor stage (P = 0.04), higher grade lesions (P = 0.01), and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that negative PD-L1 expression is associated with worse recurrence-free (P = 0.01) and worse cancer-specific survival (P = 0.01). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed negative PD-L1 expression was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (hazards ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.06–3.96, P = 0.03) and cancer-specific mortality (hazards ratio 2.89, 95% confidence interval 1.22–6.82, P = 0.02).
Negative PD-L1 expression is associated with higher pathologic tumor stage, higher grade lesions, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and worse oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC. These findings support the need for the inclusion of patients with bladder SCC into immunotherapy clinical trials.
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019
Author(s): Han Jie Lee, Alvin Lee, Hong Hong Huang, Weber Kam On Lau
The Leibovich model was updated to prognosticate oncological outcomes in postnephrectomy nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for each major histological subtype including clear cell (ccRCC), papillary (papRCC), and chromophobe RCC. We evaluated its performance in an independent population of predominantly Asian patients from Singapore.
Nine hundred and forty two binephric patients with nonmetastatic unilateral RCC treated with radical/partial nephrectomy from 1990 to 2015 from Singapore were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the Leibovich model, ccRCC patients were scored from 0 to 25 and papRCC patients divided into 3 risk groups. Primary outcomes of progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were assessed with the Kaplan–Meier method. Receiver operating characteristic curves and calibration plots were obtained to determine discrimination and calibration respectively.
Eight hundred and twenty nine patients (88%) had ccRCC where 16.2% experienced disease progression while 11.9% died of RCC over a median follow-up of 76 (42–117) months. There was good discrimination (c-index 0.81 for PFS, 0.83 for CSS) and calibration (PFS calibration-in-the-large 0.002 and calibration slope 0.99, CSS calibration-in-the-large 0.005 and calibration slope 0.96). One hundred and thirteen patients (12%) had papRCC, where 18.6% progressed while 14.2% died from RCC over a median follow-up of 69.5 (36.0–112.0) months. Discrimination was slightly weaker (c-index 0.72 for PFS, 0.74 for CSS), and the model was only calibrated for CSS (calibration-in-the-large 0.002, calibration slope 0.98), not for PFS (calibration-in-the-large 0.09, calibration slope 1.93).
The updated Leibovich score is applicable for prognostication of progression and death in both ccRCC and papRCC, even when applied to an independent population of Asian patients. Further validation is required to ensure accuracy in prognosticating PFS for papRCC.
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019
Author(s): Joseph A. Baiocco, Mark W. Ball, Asha K. Pappajohn, Kareem N. Rayn, Gennady Bratslavsky, Shawna L. Boyle, William M. Linehan, Adam R. Metwalli
To study the short and intermediate surgical, renal functional, and oncologic outcomes of multiplex partial nephrectomy (mPN) and standard partial nephrectomy (sPN) in the setting of a solitary kidney.
Review of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing solitary kidney partial nephrectomy at our institution was performed. Patients were stratified into 2 cohorts: mPN–where 3 or more renal tumors were resected and sPN–where 1 or 2 tumors were resected. Perioperative, renal functional, and oncological outcomes were compared.
Ninety-three patients with a solitary kidney underwent a total of 121 surgical procedures; 43 (35.5%) were sPN and 78 (64.4%) were mPN. The total and major (Clavien Grade III and IV) complication rates between sPN and mPN were similar (57.1% vs. 70.1%, P = 0.2; 31.0% vs. 35.1%, P = 0.3). At 12 months post-op, the percentage of patients with eGFR > 45 was similar in each group (sPN 87.0%, mPN 73.7%; P = 0.2), and long-term hemodialysis rates were 4.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Completion nephrectomy was performed in 2.3% of sPN and 2.6% of mPN. At a median follow-up of 40.1 months, the metastasis rate was 8.6% in the sPN group and 4.1% in the mPN group (P = 0.4).
Partial nephrectomy in the setting of a solitary kidney can effectively preserve renal function. The renal functional and oncologic outcomes were similar in sPN and mPN, with low hemodialysis rates and complication rates within the expected range of these operations. Three or more tumors in a solitary kidney should not be a contraindication for nephron sparing surgery.